Essay Guidelines

Essay Guidelines

First draft of essays are due November 1st, 2019 (Midnight, Pacific Daylight Time PDT).

Final draft of essays are due January 24th,  2020 (Midnight, Pacific Daylight Time PDT.)

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Essays must be submitted through this website. To submit your essay log into our website with the username you used to submit your proposal.  Find the proposal listing for which you want to submit your essay and click submit an essay.

Learn more about details for the essays:

1. Essay Format

  • Use only the styles in the WordPress Editing toolbar. For example, the body text is “Paragraph.” The main headlines will be “heading 2” and smaller. Learn about the accessible use of headings. 
  • Please do not include headers, footers, or other HTML formatting that are not available through the WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get) editor.
  • Please do not use footnotes. Essays with footnotes may not be accepted as they have to be removed during production and our current timeline does not allow for that. Citations are made in the text using the (Author, Date) method.
  • Please do not use special fonts or typeface attributes. Use only the styles in the WordPress Editing toolbar.
  • Please do not use columns in your text.

2. General Style

  • Length – Recommended length of a paper is 5,000 words (longer may be considered). If in doubt, send us an email at
  • Quotes – Set off quoted passages of more than 40 words by indenting the left-hand margin, as a block quotation.
  • URLs always begin with https://
  • We follow the AP Stylebook for technical terms.
  • Use “Web” (no quotation marks), not world wide web or World Wide Web or WWW or www
  • Use “Web,” not “web” in terms with separate words: Web page, Web address, Web feed. But webcast, webcam, webmaster, website.
  • “Internet” is capitalized.
  • Use “online”; but note “e-mail,” “e-book.”
  • Do not use punctuation after headings, like ‘References:’ A color on other punctuation is not necessary.
  • Web addresses: Cut and paste Web addresses rather than retyping them.
  • Quotation marks: Remove foreign language quotes << >>; replace with “.”
  • Punctuation should stay within quotation marks, for example, “. . . the right thing,” said the author.
  • Use North American decimal style for money.

3. Essay Title and Author name(s)

The essay authors must remain the same as your proposal authors; however, you may either keep your original proposal title or edit it, without changing the topic or intended content.

4. Essay Text

Follow the essay header with the body of your essay text. You may use the following styles in your text.

  • Headings should be numbered from H2 onwards as H1 is reserved for the Page Title.
  • Normal Paragraph text is used for most of the text of your essay.
  • Normal text has no extra line breaks between paragraphs or extra returns or enters at the end of each line.
  • Body Text is the same as Normal Text.
  • Normal text does not have indented paragraphs.
  • Blockquote shown as open double quote symbol: for any quotations that exceed two sentences, or for any use of poetry.
  • Lists with bullets
  • Lists with numbers
  • Multiple points numbered sequentially. Subsequent paragraphs are indented in the List Paragraph style.
  • Preformatted under paragraph style: quotations from computer code are indented and set off in a “typewriter” face. This distinguishes them from regular text.

5. Citations

All citations must be included in your text using the (Author, Date) method. (Trant, 2006). NO footnotes, please!  Essays using footnotes will not be accepted. Nonetheless, a full list of references must be supplied at the end of your paper. See Section 10, “References.” Citation Examples:

  • McKenzie (1997) found that…
  • Recent research (Jones, 1998) has shown that…
  • In other work (Miller & Link, 1994; Bearman, 1995) …
  • … at the National Gallery of Art site (

6. Tables and Table Formatting

Tables should contain only text or numbers and should not contain fixed width columns or font styles as these will be applied universally using CSS. Follow each table with a caption. Number all tables consecutively: Table 1, Table 2.

Table Header Table Header
Table Text Table Text
More table text More table text

Table 1: This is the first table in my paper.

7. Illustrations and Figures

Number all your figures or illustrations consecutively as Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. For example, Figure 1: Rich Cherry by mobile phone artist Paige Dansinger. Courtesy Rich Cherry.

8. Illustration Files for Web Publication

All essays must be submitted with embedded images. Please do not add images wider than 800px.

  • Name web-ready illustration files with last name of the first author, figure number, and file-type extension. For example, trant.fig1.jpg.
  • Illustrations should be in .GIF, .JPG, or .PNG format.
  • Images for online publication must not be more than 2 MB.
  • Use the ADD MEDIA button to upload and insert your illustrations and images into your essay. You can change the size of your images, add alternative text, and captions by clicking on the images in the editing window and selecting the pencil icon.

9. Illustration Files for Print Publication

  • You MUST ALSO submit high-quality illustrations suitable for print reproduction. The ideal image resolution is 300dpi. For a 5″ x 7″ print, the image resolution should be 1024 x 768 pixels minimum. For an 8″ x 10″ print, the image resolution should be 1536 x 1024 pixels minimum.
  • Submit all illustration in a single zip file. Name illustration files with last name of the first author, figure number, the suffix –print, and file-type extension: e.g. cherry.fig1-print.jpg.
  • Submit raster images (screen captures) as TIFF, JPG, or PNG with limited compression.
  • Take screen captures at the largest size (highest resolution) possible. Screen captures must be a minimum of 1024 x 768 pixels. Larger is better.
  • Line drawings/diagrams/charts must be in PDF (preferred), native format, or other vector graphic file format.
  • Name with the title of the essay and the author in the file name (Getting on not under the Mobile 2.0 Bus – Proctor.ZIP)
  • Upload the Zip file

10. Acknowledgements

  • End your text with Acknowledgements and References (in that order), formatted according to the guidelines in the Essay Text and General Style sections above.
  • Acknowledgements text is the same size as References but does not indent on the second line.

11. References

  • List properly formatted bibliographic references to all of the sources cited in your essay.
  • List references at the end of your essay, in a single alphabetical list under the heading References.
  • FOR ALL of the resources, if text is available online, include URL and date consulted.
  • Do not divide references by type. Wherever possible, include links to online sources. Format references as follows. (These are not actual references.)


Jones, C.L. (1998). Museum communication and bibliometrics. London: Oxford University Press.

Chapter in a book

Miller, L., & H. Link. (1994). “New ways to publicize museums.” In P. Phillips (ed.). Museology and you. New York: Bantam Books, 222–234.

Journal Article

Bearman, D. (1995). “Standards for networked cultural heritage.” Archives and Museum Informatics, Cultural Heritage Informatics Quarterly 9, 279–307.


McKenzie, J. (1997). “Building a virtual community.” In D. Bearman & J. Trant (eds.). Museums and the Web, Selected papers from Museums and the Web 97. Pittsburgh: Archives & Museum Informatics. 77–86.

Electronic material with no printed analog

Kren, E., & D. Marx. (1998). “A virtual fine arts museum on the web.” In D. Bearman & J. Trant (eds.). Museums and the Web 98: Proceedings. CD ROM. Archives & Museum Informatics.


To cite a website in your text (but not a specific document), it is sufficient to give the address (e.g., parenthetically.

All references to websites begin with the same information that would be provided for a printed source (or as much of that information as possible; e.g., author, editor, title, publication date, version number, update date). Because documents on the Web may change in content, move, or be removed from a site altogether, follow the date of publication (and last update) with the date a site was consulted.

Robbins, L.P. (1995) Sources of information on antiquities theft. 1995, 1996, last updated Friday, December 4, 1998. 17:39:49 EST. Consulted December 16, 1998. [link dead March 3, 2006]. Available

Essays using non-standard citation formats will be returned to the authors for correction and may not be published.

Printed volume

McKenzie, J. (1997). “Building a virtual community.” In D. Bearman & J. Trant (eds.). Museums and the Web: Selected papers from Museums and the Web 97. Pittsburgh: Archives & Museum Informatics. 77–86. Also available at

Proceedings from CD-ROM

Kren, E., & D. Marx. (1998). “A virtual fine arts museum on the web.” In D. Bearman & J. Trant (eds.). Museums and the Web 98 Proceedings. CD ROM. Archives & Museum Informatics, 1998. Also available at

Online resource

Earle, E.W., & R. Bruce. (2004). “Pictures and People: Distributed Query Database Collaboration.” In D. Bearman & J. Trant (eds.). Museums and the Web 2004: Proceedings. Toronto: Archives & Museum Informatics, 2004. Last updated March 25, 2004. Consulted July 9, 2004.

12. Submission Deadline

  • Essays are due October 15, 2019 (Midnight, Pacific Daylight Time, PDT). If you have not submitted an essay according to these Guidelines by the appropriate due date, you will forfeit your place in the publication.

13. Submitting Your Essay

Submit your essay, biography, and photograph using the links on your Profile page. Only the primary author can submit an essay associated with a given proposal.

  • If you need to send subsequent files, use the file upload form.
  • Do not e-mail your essay (files get lost that way). Essays sent by e-mail will not be considered submitted.
  • By submitting your essay, you agree to these Terms and Conditions

In addition, you must update your profile to include:

  • Author bio for each author: Each author’s biography should be in a narrative (paragraph) form and not exceed 500 words. The bio will be edited and used in an authors’ section on this website and in the final publication. Each author should click Update Profile and complete the Biographical Info section.
  • Author photograph for each author: Each author should click Update Profile and complete either the Gravatar section to associate their image with their profile, or upload a web-ready image (.jpg, .png, or .gif) that is square and at least 300 by 300 pixels.